Some good info here for trying to figure out how stuff works for 68k Macs.
00. Introduction to the MacHackFAQ v2.0
SECTION I: SOFTWARE DEPROTECTION/'CRACKING'
SECTION II: SYSTEMS HACKING
SECTION III: SYSTEMS HACKING
SECTION IV: PHREAKING
SECTION V: MAC UNDERGROUND RESOURCES
SECTION VI: MAC HACK TIDBITS
Welcome to the MacHackFAQ v2.0! This thing has been awhile in the making, but
I think I've revamped it to a level that I can work with. I'd like to be able
to put out new FAQs at least every three months, the greatest determinor of
that will be the volume of article submissions. To start this FAQ off, heres
some House Cleaning issues:
Contributors--Contributors this month are: Observer, Maddog Hoek, Voyager,
ArcAngel, AX1P, Spooty, Filbert, The Jackal, Mark O'Connel, Nganon, me
(oleBuzzard). Thanx to everyone who contributed. My apologies to anyone who
contributed that I failed to acknowledge.
MacHack FAQ Header--This additions Header was created by Maddog Hoek. If you
are an ASCII artist, and would like to submit a Header for upcoming FAQs
please contact me.
Home of the FAQ--An html versions of the FAQ can be found at kn0wledge phreak
WWW page. Text versions of MacHack FAQ can be found at kn0wledge phreak WWW
page or kn0wledge phreak BBS
Submissions, Corrections, Praises, Complaints, Suggestions--If you want to
contact me regarding any of the following, please feel free to e-mail me.
Please label your subject as one of the five subjects.
Addresses--I kept saying you could contact me, I supposed you'd like to know
SECTION I: SOFTWARE DEPROTECTION/'CRACKING'
MacsBug is an acronym for Motorola advanced computer systems deBugger. It is
an assembly-language-level debugging tool for the Macintosh and Power
Macintosh computers. MacsBug was written by Motorola (creator of the 68000
series chip) to aid programmer's in development of Macintosh software. The
versatility of MacsBug also makes it a very useful tool for software
MacsBug can be found at the Apple Corporation FTP Support Site:
The answer comes from Observer in an Original piece written for the FAQ:
Macsbug for Fun and Profit
Macsbug is an awesome program published by Apple and available for free. It's
used by programmers to debug their programs, and crackers to help them in
their work. Macsbug (MB) is what's called a "low-level debugger." This is
because it works at a very low level--in other words, looking at the actual
instructions being executed by the computer. Currently, the latest version of
MB is 6.5.2.
Installing Macsbug is easy. Drop it in your System Folder and restart. Don't
double click on it, don't put it in the Extensions folder, don't try to give
it more memory--just put it in the System Folder and let it be. The next time
you restart, the message "Debugger installed" will accompany your normal
Welcome to Macintosh message. This confirms that Macsbug is loaded.
To stop processing and enter Macsbug (called breaking into Macsbug), press
the interrupt button on your Mac. This is a small button with a circle on it.
Inside the circle is a little squiggly line that looks sort of like an EKG
(sometimes it's just a circle, though). It will often be accompanied by an
adjacent small button with a triangle in it. This is the reset button.
Anyway, press the interrupt button, and Macsbug will appear. If your computer
is one of those without hardware reset/interrupt buttons, press cmd-power.
(cmd-ctrl-power is the equivalent of the reset button.)
Macsbug makes you look very cool when you use it. This is because it looks
like sheer hell to anyone who doesn't know how to interpret what it gives
you. What does it give you? Here's an ASCII picture of a MB screen: (view in
Whoa! What the HELL is all this stuff? (And who in the world uses it?)
Basically, unless you're using assembly language on the Mac (as a programmer
or cracker, for example), you don't need to know what all this stuff means.
For the benefit of those who care, however, here you go. (Other people, skip
down to the next section.)
Stack Pointer. Not too important except for programmers/crackers.
The name of the currently running application. This is NOT (NOT NOT
NOT)not the frontmost application! Many times it will not be. To ensure
that an application will be running when you break into macsbug, hold down
one of its menus.
Indicates whether you are in 32 or 24 bit memory mode (on any modern Mac will
always be 32)fairly and whether you're using Real Memory or Virtual
D0-D7, A0-A7: Data and address registers on the 680x0 chip, where data is
The name of the subprogram which is being executed, or "no procedure name" if
none is available. If ResEdit/Resorcerer tell you the name of a subprogram is
something line "<Anon_17>," MB just says "no procedure name."
; will branch
If the next instruction to be executed (the instruction directly below the
procedure name) is a branch, this will pop up and say whether or not the
branch will occur.
The offset within the current procedure of the instruction on that line.
The absolute address in memory of the instruction on that line.
Shows up if there's a breakpoint set on an instruction. Unless you're setting
breakpoints, you won't get any of these.
BCC.S, MOVE.L, etc.
The next assembly instructions which will be executed.
641A, 2008, etc.
The hex equivalent of these instructions.
And that's about it. There are lots of worthwhile things you can do in
Macsbug without understanding all this stuff, though.
Exit to Shell. Attempts to quit the current program and go back to the
finder. If you crash and use this, it's best to restart the computer ASAP.
ReStart. Useful if you crash and can't use es, but don't want to do a
hardware restart. Better than turning the computer off, because it unmounts
ReBoot. Same as rs, but doesn't unmount mounted volumes. This makes it more
or less the same as turning the computer off and then back on, or hitting a
hardware reset button.
help <topic | command>
Displays help for the specified topic or command. To see a list of topics,
just type "help".
Base 10 <-> Base 16 (hex) <-> ASCII conversion
Enter a number preceded by # for decimal, $ for hex, or in single quotes
(i.e. 'q') for ASCII. Hit return. What pops up is the hex, decimal and ASCII
equivalent! Nifty, eh?
Error ID lookup
Crashed and want to know just what an error -43 is? Break into Macsbug and
error #(error ID in base 10)
and Macsbug will tell you what the error means.
Macsbug can perform mathematical operations, such as *, +, -, /, even between
You can also do some fun stuff with Macsbug:
sw menuflash [hexadecimal number 1-FFFF]
Sets the number of times a menu item flashes when selected. If you set this
over 50 or so, be prepared to be very patient!
Type "swap". Macsbug will say "Display will be swapped after each trace or
step." Now type "s 20" and hit return. Ooooh!! Aaaah!! Make the number bigger
if you like, but be patient... Type swap again to end the process.
And in case it ever comes up in Trivial Pursuit:
The name Macsbug has nothing to do with Macs. It is an acronym for Motorola
Advanced Computing Systems deBUGger. If Apple had called their computers
Donuts, Macsbug would still be called Macsbug. (Motorola comes in, for those
who don't know, because Motorola makes the 680x0 chips which were the heart
of every Mac until the PowerPC, which is still made by Motorola.)
For Andy Ihnatko's typically unique spin (I mean that kindly, Andy) on
Macsbug, check out the last page of the Feb 96 MacUser. If you're a Mac
programmer and want to know how to use Macsbug to examine your programs,
check out _Debugging Macintosh Software with Macsbug_, by Othmer and Straus.
For information on how to use Macsbug itself, Apple publishes a manual which
costs about $30.
"How do I get blahblahware to stop asking me to register?"
(Also known as, "Will someone give me a crack to blahblahware?")
Cracking software is a huge topic--not always difficult, but one with many
different aspects, all of which can be important. This is just the first step
down a long road, and I urge anyone interested in truly learning about
cracking to check out the "Further Reading" section at the bottom. Also, the
first two appendixes (glossary and assembly reference) aren't meant as
afterthoughts but as important parts of the text. Use them. Appendix 3 is
useful if you want Resorcerer (which you do).
Anyone who's written a few real Mac applications (or one big one) in Pascal,
C, or any similar language is a good candidate to become a Mac cracker.
However far down from there you rank yourself, is how much harder it's going
to be for you to crack software. Try if you like, but knowing how to program
is useful if you want to modify programs.
If you're freaked out about assembly language, don't be; a decent programmer
in Pascal or C can acquire a fluency in assembly fairly easily. All your
friends from the Toolbox exist in assembly, just with an underscore ("_")
before their names. And we call them traps, rather than calls. But other than
that they're pretty much the same. And lots of cracking is just changing
branches, like changing conditions in an "if" statement. Nothing too hairy,
People generally write programs in what's called a high-level language, a
language that's far from what the computer actually does but is easy for a
human to remember and work with. HyperTalk is a very high-level language.
Pascal and C are another notch or two down the line. In order for the
computer to run programs written in these high-level languages, you need a
compiler. This is a program which translates what you've written in Pascal
(gibberish to the computer), into assembly language, the specific
instructions which the CPU will execute to run your program. So when you open
a program and look at its CODE resources, you're looking at some
representation of the actual instructions the computer follows to run that
Note I said some representation. If you're using ResEdit, all you'll see is
the code in hexadecimal. This doesn't do you much good. To view it as its
assembly code equivalent, either spring for Resorcerer (a $256 ResEdit done
right), or get the ResEdit CODE Editor, which is free and publicly available.
Once you install the resources in the CODE Editor into your ResEdit
application, when you open a CODE resource, you'll see something like this
(and also get some new menus):
Offset Addr Opcode Operand Comment
Here's what this all means:
The line number in bytes, counting from the beginning of the CODE
The line number, counting from the beginning of the current
The assembly instruction to execute
Data which accompanies the instruction (parameters)
Misc. info on a line of code, plus hex representation of the line
All this exists in Resorcerer as well, just with slightly different names. To
toggle between viewing absolute and relative offsets in Resorcerer, press
cmd-2 while viewing a CODE resource.
Go to the "Modules" (Routines in Resorcerer) menu. There you'll find a list,
in the order they exist in the code, of all of the procedures in that code
segment. (Happy Resorcerer users will have this menu alphabetized.) Find a
program which has more than anon1, anon2, etc. Procedure names are a huge
help to a cracker, because let's say you want to remove a registration dialog
box--which catches your eye more, "DoRegDialog," or "anon36?"
So you have your program. Let's say what's annoying you is that it always
shows a dialog which you can't dismiss for a few seconds, until it enables
the OK button.
Go look at the program's DLOG resources and find the dialog you want to
avoid. If it isn't there, check out the WIND resources as well. Convert the
dialog/window's ID number into hex. If you can't do this manually, Resorcerer
can do it for you, or else find one of the many shareware calculators that
has the capability. Also, TI-85 owners can just punch go into the mode
settings and set it to use hex. Never thought that thing would come in handy,
Anyway. Search for this value in the code, just a few lines before a call to
the _GetNewDialog trap. (Cmd-G in Resorcerer, or hold down option when
opening the CODE resource in ResEdit and use ResEdit's search tools.) Here's
a sample from an actual application, whose nag dialog is DLOG ID #9990=$2706:
What's this doing? It's MOVEing the hex number $2706 to "sp." This is the
Stack Pointer, a place where things are stored temporarily--typically
parameters passed to a procedure or function, and afterwards what it returns.
Sure enough, the next line is:
This is where we move the DialogPtr given to us by _GetNewDialog, off of the
stack pointer and put its address in register A4. (We know GetNewDialog
returns a DialogPtr because we bought the Inside Mac CD while we were doing
Mac programming in a high-level language. I wasn't kidding when I said Mac
programming experience would help.)
OK, so now we know where the dialog is loaded. And, because we've used
dialogs in a higher-level language before, we know that other toolbox
calls--ModalDialog and CloseDialog for example--tend to accompany a
GetNewDialog call. Further, the problem we wish to overcome is that it stops
for a few seconds before enabling the OK button. This implicates another
likely accomplice, HiliteControl, which is used to enable and disable dialog
Let's say the programmer was a jerk and left the subprogram names in the
code. Maybe the subprogram you found the dialog in is called "DoNagBox." If
it's this obvious, you could try NOP'ing the entire DoNagBox subprogram. Note
that while this is easy in Resorcerer, it is very difficult in ResEdit.
Maybe that doesn't work. Maybe that makes the program crash. OK, time to try
something else. While the nag box is open, break into Macsbug (read about
that in another section of the FAQ) and type "atb closedialog". This will
cause Macsbug to interrupt processing when a call to the _CloseDialog trap is
made. Dismiss the nag dialog, and poof, you're in Macsbug. Use the "t"
command to step through the code, through the subprogram which holds the
_GetNewDialog for the nag box. When you hit an "rts," keep going--the next
line will be the line after the line which calls the nag subprogram. Here's a
We reach "jsr doNagBox," which sends us off to the doNagBox subprogram. This
puts up a dialog and then closes it when we hit a button. When all this has
been done, we're returned to the line of code immediately following the "jsr
doNagBox" line. Just like any other language.
We could NOP the "jsr doNagBox," but that tends to be asking for trouble; any
parameters passed to or received from the subprogram are left wandering
around, which will probably cause a crash. What we should look for are
branches, probably beq or bne. Is there one of these above the jsr which
skips down just a few lines past the jsr? If so, try changing the condition
of this branch (such as beq->bra).
The idea of looking for a dialog's ID is one which frequently works. However,
there are other limitations you might want to overcome. Here are some ideas
for other program limitations:
Only works for x minutes, then quits
Look for the _TickCount trap (hex A975) in the code--this is the most common
method of doing this. Something else to watch for is _ExitToShell, (hex
A9F4), which MAY be the way the program quits itself. If the subprogram names
are in the code, look especially hard at anything resembling "eventloop,"
Only works for a week
Look for the _SecondsToDate (hex A9C6) trap, and a branch a while after it.
Also, if a dialog pops up to tell you to register, look for the ID of this
Only lets you play the first x levels
Several possibilities here. If a dialog appears when you reach a higher
level, the easiest is to search for the dialog ID in the code. If it quits,
look for _ExitToShell. If you absolutely can't find what you're looking for,
search for the highest possible level number in the code. (If you can only
play levels 1-4, search for $0004.) If this shows up in or near some form of
cmp, you may have struck paydirt.
Practice, Practice, Practice
With just a few months of practice, you'll be surprised at how many things
you can crack in less than an hour. Here are some things you can try looking
at, in order of difficulty: (easiest->hardest)
Relax 1.0 (any shareware site)
GraphicConverter 1.7.7 /1 (ditto)
Net Watchman demo (ftp.aggroup.com) (don't worry about printing)
GopherGolf 2.0.7 (shareware again)
(Note: Some of these are commercial software. These cracks should only be
attempted on software you own, and for your own convenience.)
Each command in assembly has an offset, essentially a line number. Branching
to an offset sets the PC to the specified offset and then continues execution
Byte, word, long word:
The most common data sizes. Use monaco for the table below:
These can be halved to alter the range to include negative values. So a byte
can also be used to go from #-127 to #127, a word from #-32767 to #32767, and
so on. In a long word (for example) this is accomplished by going from $0 to
$7FFF (#0-#32767) normally. $8000 is then equal to #-32767, up to $FFFF=#-1.
The same system is used for the other data sizes as well.
There are five status flags: Z, C, N, V, X. These keep track of the results
of operations. Conditional branches such as bne and beq check the flags to
decide whether or not to branch.
Z: Zero flag. Set if the result of an operation is zero, or if two compared
values are equal. Cleared otherwise.
C: Carry flag. Set if the a math operation produced a digit carry (i.e.
N: Negative flag. Set if the result of a math operation is negative, or the
most significant (rightmost) bit in a number is true.
V: Overflow flag. Set if an operation's result can't be held in the data
provided (such as $FF+$1 in a byte). Not too common.
X: Extended flag. Used for precision in math operations. Also not too common.
Usually referred to as hex. This is base 16. Our number system is base 10
(aka decimal), which means each column is ten times the previous one. In hex,
you start with the ones column, then you have a sixteens column, then a 256's
column, and so on. Hex is just like our normal system, except you count to 15
before going to the next place. The extra 6 numbers you need for this are
provided by the letters A-F. So counting in hex goes like this:
The signs # and $ are used to indicate decimal (base 10) and hexadecimal,
respectively. So #10=$A; (#15+#1)=($F+$1)=$10; #255=$FF; and so on.
Two hexadecimal digits are equivalent to eight bits, or one byte.
680x0 chips have 16 registers, which are places to hold data (essentially a
variable in higher-level languages). These are divided into 8 data registers,
labeled D0-D7, and 8 address registers, labeled A0-A7. Each register can hold
a long word. The address and data registers are themselves identical, but
there are commands which can be used on address registers which cannot be
used on data registers.
Used more or less interchangeably. If used specifically, they mean the same
thing they would in a high-level language.
Appendix 2: Quick Assembly Instruction Reference
This is a brief description of the most common commands in assembly language.
There are many others however, and anyone seriously wanting to learn how to
crack will soon need more than this. See the "further reading" section for
Suffixes: .b, .w, .l
Indicates that the suffixed instruction will apply to a Byte, Word, or Long
word, respectively. So cmp.b will compare two bytes.
ADDs two values, and stores the result in the second operand. The Z flag is
set if the result was zero, cleared otherwise.
Branch if EQual. Branches if Z flag is set. 67 hex.
Branch if Not Equal. Branch if the Z flag is clear. 66 hex.
BRanch Always. Move PC to the indicated offset and continue. 60 hex.
CLeaR. Sets its operand to zero.
CoMPares two values. If the values are equal then the Z flag is set.
Otherwise it is cleared.
Jump SubRoutine. Exactly like calling a procedure or function in a high-level
language: sets PC to the subprogram's address, but first puts the PC's
current value on the stack. When the specified subprogram is completed, the
rts ("ReTurn from Subroutine") command will be used to return to where the
subprogram was called.
LINK/UNLinK. Generally used to create local variables for subprograms. (Link
creates, unlink disposes at end of subprogram.)
MOVEs the first operand into the second. When you see something like (A2), it
means that the data stored in the address held in A2 is being used. A2
without the parentheses means the actual data held in A2.
No OPeration. Useful for simply deleting code without changing the location
in memory of other code. 4E71 hex.
SUBtract. Same as add, but subtracts the first operand from the second.
Appendix 3: Ordering Resorcerer, a cracker's best friend
The single-copy price of Resorcerer is US $256 (decimal!). We also offer
quantity, reseller, and educational discounts at anywhere between 20% and 50%
off of the above price. Please call us for more information and a quote.
Our mailing address is:
P.O. Box 298
Boulder, CO, 80306-0298
Phone: (303) 440-0707
Fax: (303) 440-0504
Internet: [email protected]
Surprise surprise, a few pages aren't enough to teach you assembly language.
For more information, check out these sources...
Files by The Shepherd and Vassal
Each of these guys has written a much bigger file on Mac cracking. The
Shepherd's is the larger one and better for the beginner (and a great file in
general), Vassal's offers more specific technique tips. I used the Shepherd's
file as a reference for the assembly reference section here.
Basic MacCracking files
I've written a few files which describe how to crack specific programs. Of
course I'm biased, but I think these are all very helpful to beginners,
especially since they were written as I learned things myself.
Fantasm's help files
Fantasm is an assembly language development program, for the sickos who
actually create whole programs in assembly language. While using the program
itself has been shown to cause severe social problems, it comes with six
large files written to teach someone how to write assembly language. These
aren't something anyone serious about this stuff should pass up.
Debugging Macintosh Software with Macsbug
Macsbug in invaluable to a cracker. I would be shot if I took the space to
describe how to use it here, but it's not that hard to figure out. What is
hard is discovering how to use it in the context of a Macintosh (i.e. where
is the event record that _waitnextevent just got?), and this book tells you
all of that.
Macsbug Reference and Debugging Guide
Apple's Macsbug documentation, plus EXCELLENT assembly tutorial. Another one
serious folks shouldn't miss out on.
DBugr 1.2.1...........Puts a floating bomb on your desktop that you can click
on at any time to enter macs bug. Widely available.
http://vsl.cnet.com. Search: 'macsbug'
Break Before..........Break into MacsBug on the very first instruction of the
INIT code of ANY extension you choose. Widely
http://vsl.cnet.com. Search 'macsbug'
Debugger F-Key........Drop into the debugger. Recognizes MacsBug, TMON, The
Debugger, and ABZmon. Will also recognize any new
debuggers that follow Apple's debugger protocol as
documented in the "MacsBug Reference and Debugging
Guide." http://vsl.cnet.com. Search 'macsbug'
Cool MacsBug Tricks...Cool things you can do with MacsBug.
Tips for MacsBug......Place to obtain and submit MacsBug programming tips.
Here are a few:
Command-Option-x-o during boot-up.
* Boot from a floppy. Even if floppy startup has been disabled, you should
be able to force it by holding down the command-option-shift-delete key
combo to boot the floppy. This key combo won't let the internal hard
MUST HAVES for defeating Secured Macs are Keystroke Recorders, file wipers
and the System 7.5 Disk Tools.
Keystroke Recorders--Keystroke Recorders are normally Control Panels, which
when activated, will record every keystroke made on a system. In many cases
the log containing all of the Keystroks is stored in a covert place for later
retreival. A few keystroke recorders are:
MacLife Insurance.....http://vsl.cnet.com. Search: 'maclifeinsurance'
SuperSave 1.x.........http://vsl.cnet.com. Search: 'super save'
File Wipers--File wipers are utilities that can remove a file from a Hard
Disks by physically writing over it. Many files are protected against
deletion by the prevention of routines which allow their altering. File
wipers can circumvent this protection because they don't perform the routines
involved in altering a file, instead they just write over the file with null
data. As a result the file is eliminated and thereby rendered NON-FUNCTIONAL.
This makes them a very valuable in defeating Macintosh security. File wipers
have the ability to wipe: locked file, protected files, running programs, the
system folder, themselves, anything. A few file wipers are:
Burn 2.2.............http://vsl.cnet.com. Search: 'Burn'
Flame File v1.5.8....http://vsl.cnet.com. Search: 'flamefile'
Obliterate v1.1......http://vsl.cnet.com. Search: 'Obliterate'
The Eraser 2.0.0.....ftp://ftp.euro.net/Mac/info-mac/disk/eraser-20.hqx
System 7.5 Disk Tools--System 7.5 Disk Tools contains a Finder and
Mini-System on a single 1.44 HD Floppy thereby alllowing you to boot from the
Floppy Drive. The 7.5 Disk Tools are a part of the System 7.5.
There are numerous ways to Hack At Ease. Here are a Few:
Programmer's Switch--Hit the programmer's switch (see section on MacsBug) and
type: G FINDER. This should break you out of At Ease and leave you in the
Finder. Once you're in in the the Finder you've pretty much hacked the
protection. If you want to polish the hack (cover your tracks, find
passwords, etc.) here's some advanced steps you can take:
* If you know that your sysadmin keeps logs Copy the system folder to
the hard drive. Rename the original system folder. Reboot without At
Ease. When you are done, put the real system folder back and delete
the second one.
* If you aren't concerned about logs, just move the At Ease Preferences
out of the System Folder: Extensions folder and reboot. Remember to
put them back when you are done.
* Install one of the aforementioned Keystroke recorders. Wait a few days
and check the logs from the recorder. You should have the
Crashing the System--Another Hack for At Ease lies in Crashing the system
it's running on. Just keep opening applications until all the RAM is
consumed. On older versions of At Ease, a dialogue box will appear that
asking you if you would like to quit At Ease to free up RAM. Click yes!
Null Password--Open the file System Folder:At Ease:At Ease Preferences with
MSWord or any ther text editor. Look for the string "MFDR\ ]". Delete
everything between "\" and "]". Save the changes and you have a null
password. Now you can go to At Ease Setup and change the password to whatever
OEM Hack---The following directions are excerpted from the At Ease
Administration Manual from the Section: 'What do I do if I forget my
If you forget the At Ease administrator's password, follow the
directions below instead of those in the manual. If your startup disk is
locked, you'll first need to run the Unlock application on the AT Ease
2.0 Utilities disk to unlock the start-up disk. Consult the manual for
information about the Unlock application.
1. Start up your computer from another startup disk.
2. Open the System Folder of your usual startup disk.
3. Open the At Ease Items folder inside your System Folder.
4. Drag the At Ease Preferences file into the trash.
5. Hold down the Option key while you choose Empty Trash from the
6. Restart from your usual startup disk.
7. Open the At Ease Setup for Workgroups application.
Note: If you are using an AppleShare server volume as the At Ease disk,
your setups may not appear until you reset the At Ease disk to
this server volume.
8. Reconnect to the server volume and use the At Ease Disk command to
reselect the volume.
Note: Make sure you use the information on the server instead of
replacing it with the information on the startup disk.
9. Add a new password and clue.
10. Make sure the following options set correctly:
11. Turn At Ease back on.
12. Quit At Ease Setup for Workgroups."
DisEase is a fairly powerful utility for Hacking At Ease. It allows you to
manipulate At Ease, break out of At Ease, decode passwords, any number of
things that would render At Ease useless. The only problem is on most At Ease
protected system you are prevented from finder or floppy disk access, thereby
preventing you the ability to run DisEase in the first place. In these
situations, follow the above steps for breaking into the Finder, you can then
access DisEase and use it to decode the Administrator password.
Also you can contact the Author. [email protected]
FoolProof is Macintosh security scheme that uses driver level and Systems
Folder protection to prevent against bypassing. Driver Level protection is
protection written to the Driver Level of the Hard Disk. At this level, the
drive can not be mounted without envoking the protection. This condition will
continue to exist as long as the Driver remains intact. Here are some methods
of defeating it.:
IMPORTANT NOTE--The FoolProof extension, among other things, intercepts the
Restart & Shutdown calls from the System and makes sure to disable any
external boot device whenever a Restart or Shutdown is called. To defeat
this, when you Restart YOU HAVE TO DO HARD RESTARTS (ctrl-opt-del). When you
do hard Restarts no calls are made to the System, and the System is restarted
without locking or protecting anything. So be sure to do HARD RESTARTS when
Floppy Boot--As detailed in the beginning of this section, Boot from a floppy
with command-option-shift-delete held down. This will prevent the Protected
Driver from loading. Once the System is loaded you may need to use a Disk
mounting utility to Mount the Hard Drive. Once the drive is mounted, Move the
FoolProof Extensions and Prefs out of the System folder and Restart.
FoolProof should be disabled.
exit_to_shell--Restart and hit the interrupt switch while the INITs are
loading and call an exit_to_shell (see MacsBug section), then Move the
FoolProof Extensions and Prefs out of the System folder and Restart.
FoolProof should be disabled.
Find File Hack--If you're started up onto a FoolProof protected system,
you'll notice that you probably don't have access to the System Folder. If
you did you could drag the FoolProof Extension and Prefs out of the System
Folder and Restart without FoolProof protection. Well, believe it or not, the
Finder itself provide circumvention around this protection.
1. From the Finder, go up to Find in the Filemenu. Search for 'Finder'
2. Find is nice enough to find Finder for us in the Extension Folder, AND
open the Extension Folder for our access. By NO sheer coincedence, the
FoolProof extensions just happen to be in the same folder.
3. Drag the FoolProof extensions out of the System Folder and Restart.
FoolProof should be disabled.
Note--When you're done with all of the above methods, drag the FoolProof
extensions and prefs back into the System Folder and restart. Noone will ever
know you were there.
First try the default password 'foolproof'. If that doesn't work, Make a copy
of the Chooser and use ResEdit to change the Chooser Creator type from 'dfil
chzr' to 'dfil keyc'. This will reset the Password to the default:
'foolproof'. Swap (don't delete) the original Chooser with the modified copy.
Now you access the Chooser with the default password. When you're done, cover
your tracks by putting back the Original Chooser.
The single most fundamental way to defeat a passworded Control Panel is to
Delete it's preferences. The preferences for any particular program is in the
Preferences folder in the System folder. In some cases it may be somewhere
else or in other cases the preferences may be invisible. A good program to
use to look for a Preferences file (or any file for that matter) is Norton
Disk Editor. This program allows you to search for a file by any number of
criteria, including attributes (thereby allowing you to search for Invsible
files). Once you've found the prefs for the Control Panel you're trying to
defeat, delete them (the prefs.) If you can't delete them write over them
using a file wiper (see Part #07, File Wipers) Restart. In most cases,
whatever Control Panel you were trying to get into will be void of it's
password protection. This methods works good for: Screen savers, Virus
Programs, some security programs, and Network Managers.
Take a floppy with a File Wiper on it (see Part #07, File Wipers) to
Kinko's. Open -> System Folder: Extensions: Desk Tracy Folder Drag the files
'DTPreferences' and 'UData' onto the file wiper. Go up to the Menubar, you
should see your Login name up there, drag down to 'Configuration'. Don't
change anything, just click the Close Box and it will ask you if you want to
Save. Click 'Yes' Now go up to the Apple Option Menu and Select 'About Desk
Tracy'. It should beep at you, and then show you the Desk Tracy 'About'
Window. By this process, you have just Returned Desk Tray to it's Virgin
Installation State. All accounting is Off, and Desk Tracy is like it was
when it was First installed, BEFORE it was configured
Ethernet sniffing is listening (with software) to the raw ethernet
device for packets that interest you. When your software sees a
packet that fits certain criteria, it logs it to a file. The most
common criteria for an interesting packet is one that contains words
like "login" or "password."
here are a couple of EtherNet sniffers:
Watch 1.7.1......http://vsl.cnet.com. Search: 'sniffer'
(original by spooty , mods by filbert 4 the machaq faq)
This article will explain how to get someone's password for their unix
account etc., from the packets transmitted over a localtalk or ethernet
network. I will not bother to explain the difficulties (or impossibilities)
of cracking THE password file, or worse yet, shadowed passwords. If you want
to learn about these, go read alt.2600 and look at all the lamers asking how
to hack the password file in one easy step. What I will give you is the
simplest and most powerful way to acquire passwords. Sniffing packets may or
may not be punishable where you are. It may be shady behavior, or potentially
legitimate. Using someone else's password is obviously a no-no in the eyes of
admins, and the law, but then again, if you gave a shit, you wouldn't be
reading this. Ready?
First of all, you need a packet sniffer. Just about any sniffer will do.
Since this article is aimed primarily at Mac users, I will use Watch 1.7.1,
available at the Phruwt ftp site. This app will do nicely. Now, all you need
is a Mac and a network, both of which you will have to find yourself.
Any computer at a cluster at any company or university will probably be tied
into their network, at least for a local bridge. For older, smaller, or just
plain dumber networks, you will be able to access the entire LAN from any
computer connected to it. Otherwise you are limited to the particular zone to
which your computer is assigned. It shouldn't be too hard to find a good,
accessible zone, however. If there is a main computing center at a school,
for example, it will probably be both the site of accessible computers AND
the same zone that sysadmins use.
Alrighty. Time to get to work. Fire up your sniffer. The default settings on
Watch 1.7.1 are fine. Under the "Filter" menu, only "LAP ctrl capture" should
be checked. Click "start." Now you will see "packets" and "errors" begin to
add up. For the first time, let 50 or more packets pile up before you hit
stop. Now look at the packets. They will all have names like AFP, ATP, etc,
that will confuse the hell out of your newbie ass if you don't know what they
are. Don't worry about them. What you're looking for are the ones which are
labeled by either TCP or Telnet.
Anyone using Telnet to log into an account will have to enter both a userid
and a password. This is where your knowledge of terminals comes in. When
you're telnetting, or using any terminal-based software, every keystroke you
hit is sent to the server, and then the server responds somehow to your
screen in the terminal. For example, say you are typing a letter to someone
using pine or some other unix mailer. If you type "k", a "k" will be sent to
the server, and then a "k" will be sent back to appear on your screen. On the
other hand, if you're hitting space bar to advance a page or something, a
space will be sent, but the server will not return a space, but rather the
next page of text. Got it?
So what you're looking for is the userid/password interaction between the
client and server. By watching the packets (and you'll see this quickly),
you'll soon find some sucker firing up his account. The first sign will be
the server's prompt for the userid, which should be as plain as day. Then the
unwitting fool will start typing in his userid, and the server will be
displaying it on his screen like this (these are only the last few columns
you will see in Watch. For more detail, you can double click on any of the
(In this example, 25 is the server and 69 is the user's computer)
lap dst 69 lap src 25 Telnet: 'login:'
lap dst 25 lap src 69 Telnet: 'l'
lap dst 69 lap src 25 Telnet: 'l'
lap dst 25 lap src 69 Telnet: 'o'
lap dst 69 lap src 25 Telnet: 'o'
lap dst 25 lap src 69 Telnet: 's'
lap dst 69 lap src 25 Telnet: 's'
lap dst 25 lap src 69 Telnet: 'e'
lap dst 69 lap src 25 Telnet: 'e'
lap dst 25 lap src 69 Telnet: 'r'
lap dst 69 lap src 25 Telnet: 'r'
Of course anyone typing any words will look like this, so you have to be sure
this punk is logging in and not just blabbing about himself to his fat
girlfriend back home. So make sure he has received the login prompt before
this, by paying attention to the source and destinations of each packet (dst
and src). Also, all the packets may not be together like this. A lot of other
shit might be mixed in, so once again, lay off the crack and make sure the
packets you're looking at are all going to and from the same places (note:
the number for the server will just about always be the same and the varying
clients' addresses will differ).
Now when it's time for the password:
lap dst 25 lap src 69 Telnet: 's'
lap dst 69 lap src 25 Telnet: ' '
lap dst 25 lap src 69 Telnet: 'm'
lap dst 69 lap src 25 Telnet: ' '
lap dst 25 lap src 69 Telnet: 'e'
lap dst 69 lap src 25 Telnet: ' '
lap dst 25 lap src 69 Telnet: 'g'
lap dst 69 lap src 25 Telnet: ' '
lap dst 25 lap src 69 Telnet: 'm'
lap dst 69 lap src 25 Telnet: ' '
lap dst 25 lap src 69 Telnet: 'a'
lap dst 69 lap src 25 Telnet: ' '
Where, you ask, are the missing letters? They don't show up, because the
server doesn't reveal them on the user's screen, so the ol' peeking over the
shoulder technique won't work, unless you can follow someone's typing
fingers, which is hella difficult.
Okey dokey. You've got your userid and password. Go have fun now.
Unless, of course you want to hear about the other fun you can have with a
sniffer. Say for example, you're trolling around and see someone is reading
PORNO stories on usenet. One time I found this kid reading stories about some
little boy getting off by being spanked by his mom. What a fucking weirdo!
Anyway, you can pinpoint who is doing what pretty easily. Use another
program, like Trawl or Interpoll, and you'll be able to see what every
locally networked computers' addresses are. Usually you can get the owner
name too. Also, you can set Watch to filter out everything except the traffic
between two addresses. This is particularly useful, because most of the time
there will be so much fucking trash flying back and forth, that it will be
difficult to wade through it all.
This method is sort of a bitch to use, because you may have to just wait and
be lucky to get the password. You can be sneaky though like this:
Call some bastard up whose password you want. Be at a computer, if necessary
in his/her zone.
You: "Hey Jerky, didja get that kewl mail I sentya? Them: "Uh, let me
(Fire up your sniffer and do it quick!)
Them: "Hold on..."
(click, click, click, as they type away) Them: "All it says is 'hi.'"
You: "Oh whoops, I'll have to send it again. Bye."
Hang up, stop the packet collection and you've got paydirt.
If someone uses a desktop based mailing program, like Eudora, the collecting
account passwords is even easier. The packets will be marked "TCP" instead of
"Telnet" and in the text of the packet (you'll have to check the full details
of the packet for this) you'll find the whole text of the userid's and
Sniffers are good for a lot of other shit too, so play around with them and
see what you get. Unfortunately, Apple Fileserver (AFS) passwords are a bear
to get, since they are usually two-way scrambled (sys 7.1 and higher, I
believe). I'm trying to figure out the encryption, but it's not really my
department. In any event, someone's account password will very often be their
server password too.
Although some systems are switching over to Kerberos protected transmission
of all packets across their LANs, most are still wide open. Doing something
butt-stupid, like changing someone's password on them, will only result in
them getting back into their account in a matter of hours, so be creative.
It's pretty fun just to watch (hence the name) the dark sides of all the
people you know. Then go up to them and say shit like, "Spank much lately?"
Have fun with this, and don't get caught.
FileGuard is a powerful and versatile security system for the Mac that uses
Driver Level protection, Encryption and Owned Finder Resources to provide
controlled access to Protected system. In defeating FileGuard completely
you'll need to be able to eliminate the protection, and decrypt protected
Basic FileGuard Hack--FileGuard protection can be somewhat confusing. The
install process requires installing FileGuard onto a HardDisk, and then
installing the Driver Level protection of FileGuard after the initial install
has been performed. Because of this, and because of the way FileGuard acts
after the initial install, someone unfamiliar with FileGuard can easily be
left with the impression that his or her system is protected, when in fact
the Driver Level of FileGuard's protection has not beeen installed. Without
the Driver Level protection the FileGuard can be defeated by disabling
extensions. So to start, ry Restarting with the Shift-Key held down. If the
Driver Level protection of the system has not been installed, then you will
have unprotected access to the system.
FileGuard 2.7.x Hack--If the Driver Level of FileGuards protection has been
installed on the system, the only way to defeat the protection is to Hack the
password or to remove the Driver altogether. Password hacking is discussed in
more depth in the section on FileGuard 2.9.x. It is discussed their ecause it
is much more viable for that version of FileGuard. For this version (2.7.x),
the most viable way to defeat the security is to remove the Driver
To remove the Driver you'll need to make an HD floppy Start up disk that has
a SCSI Driver utility on it. This is easy task given the amount of
information you need to cram on to a single 1.44mb Floppy. To aid you in
making this special floppy, I suggest you go by LaCie's home page and check
out how they suggest you do it.
This page can provide you insight on how to make a SCSI Driver Install disk
for use in FileGuard and other driver level protection hacking.
Try the following as a LAST RESORT:
1. Get a high density disk. Install some startup software for the machine
in question. Install some disk formatting software that ets you install
new drivers (like Gold Triangle, Apple HD SC Setup, or Silver Lining).
2. Restart, holding down command-option-shift-delete. This prevents the
SCSI Bus from trying to mount the internal hard disk.
3. Run disk formatting software and install a new driver over the old
4. Restart. No password should be prompted for.
NOTE--This process will probably cause the hard disk to crash severely
in the future!!! Only do this if there is something you really need on the
disk. After you copy the needed files to a different place, you should
REFORMAT THE HARD DISK.
FileGuard 2.9.x Hack--In the 'FileGuard 2.9 addendum' which highlights
changes in the latest release of FileGuard, it states:
'FileGuard now allows you to customize the message that appears whenever
the volume password is requested.'
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
'Unless you checked the option 'Ask volume password at startup' (see
below), the volume password is only requested when the FileGuard extension
is not active (for example, if someone tries to boot with extensions off to
bypass FileGuard). Since the volume's password is not regularly requested,
you may also wish to customize this message to include some kind of reference
which will trigger your memory in case you forget the volume password. Be
sure not to type in an obvious reference that could let others easily guess
What a give away. Heres how this hack would (potentially) work:
Normally, if a system is FULLY protected by FileGuard, when you Start up a
dialog will appear requesting a NAME and an ACCESS KEY. You're given three
opportunities to get it right or the System Restarts and you go through the
same thing again.
Now, if you try and Restart with the Shift-Key held down, the system will
load WITHOUT Extensions and without the FileGuard Control Panel. But even
without the Control panel, the System is still protected by the Driver Level
portion of FileGuard's Protection (provided Volume Protection has been
installed). But the Driver Level portion of Fileguard's protection is less
secure and for two reasons:
1. The Driver Level protection puts up a message (as stated in the above
mentioned 'addendum') which may, in and of itself, contain the password.
2. The Driver Level protection doesn't ask for a NAME, only a VOLUME
PASSWORD, thereby eliminating part of the guess work.
So, boot up a FileGuard system with the Shift-Key held down, read what the
FileGuard says, and start using the words within the dialog as potential
Passwords to the Volume. If that doesn't work, try possible single word
passwords (remember, you only have to enter one word). With a little effort
you might just exploit a vulnerability.
FileGuard Encrypted Files--Use FileGuard to encrypt a file with the password
'test', for example. Use ResEdit to copy the resource 'high' from that file.
Paste it into the file that contains the unknown password. Save changes and
quit. Decrypt the modified file with FileGuard using the password 'test'.
FirstClass Defaults--Theirs only one FirstClass default I know of and it's a
doosie. Every FirstClass system comes with the Administrators account:
The FirstClass Administration Manual very clearly states that the first thing
you are REQUIRED to do after Installing your FirstClass server is CHANGE this
password. But because of the way FirstClass is designed, it is often
overlooked. When you've installed your Server and loaded up the FC Client
Admin settings that come with the server, you never have to enter a password.
Its already saved into the Settings. So all you do is click Login and you're
in. And when first configuring a FirstClass system there are ALOT of things
to address and an inexpereinced Admin (as most Admins setting up an FC system
are) will often overlook changing this default account.
Password Dig--Theres a utility called FirstClass Digger 1.x which will dig
passwords out of the FirstClass server. This utility is available at via
SoftArc Online. For more info on SAOL goto the SoftArc home page:
Admin Password Dig--There is one way to hack FirstClass if you have physical
access to the server. To do this, you first open the root level of the hard
drive and then open the folder named "FirstClass Post Office". The locate the
foldernamed "UserDir" and open that. From there, open the folder named
"admin.". Then copy the file named .ENProf onto a disk. When you have the
time, open it up with Microsoft Word. To do this, you must change the "Show"
pull-down menu from "Readable Files" to "All Files" and THEN locate the
.ENProf. You will see the admin's password around the fourth or fifth line.
If the admin. is using a shorter password than he used to, then you will see
his password, followed by the correspoding characters of his old password.
I.E., if someone changed their password from "systemadmin" to "admin." it
would look like "adminmadmin". If you do not get on with the whole string
listed, try passwords by taking the last letter away until you get it. You
can now give yourself Administrator privs. From there, you can do everything
the real admin. can do, EXCEPT open the Admins desktop, and grant other users
Admin Accounted Settings--Another one I've seen, is when a FirstClass Admin
is setting up a new Server, one of the things they can do to add to the look
of their System is make custom Settings file. Well this Custom setting file
is usually just the Admin settings file modified. They modify it a ittle bit
at a time, and then to check to see how it looks they'll login to their
system. For the sake of ease they'll go ahead and have the Username and
Password saved so all they have to do to test the setings after a
modification is click Login (cuts down on the time required to enter the name
and password). Well after a few hours or days of making the perfect settings
file, they're tired, and happy and releived and whole bunch of other things
that lead to distractions. They think they're done, and they Stuff their
settings file and distribute it on BBSs or the Internet so people can use the
settings to access their FC system. What did they forget to do? They forgot
to delete the Admin username and password from the settings file. By the time
they've found out, someone has already logged in with the uAdmin account (all
they had to do was click Login), accessed the Hard drive, found their way to
the DTP or Acconting folder, and stolen confidential or personal files.
FC Time Limit Hack--Next time you're logged into a FirstClass system be sure
to go upto view and select Session Status. Keep track of your time. When
you're time is almost up, go up to the menu bar and hold a menu open. The
System won't log you off under these this ondition. Wait for about 30 seconds
past the time you're supposed to be logged off. Let go of the menu and you'll
still be logged on and can stay logged on indefinitley.
Traditionally stated, the purpose of hacking a UNIX is: to "get to ROOT."
This refers to the ROOT account that every UNIX system has as part of it's
Operating system. The ROOT is a 'Trusted User' account, THE most powerful
account on a UNIX. If you can hack a ROOT you can utilize or exploit every
function a UNIX is capable of. But to get to "ROOT" you have to have
somewhere to start. one of the most common places to start is with the
'passwd' is the common name of the file in which user account information is
stored on a UNIX system. You might consider it a comprehensive users list.
The file contains the information for an accounts USERNAME, PASSWORD, USER
NUMBER, GROUP, GECOS, HOME DIRECTORY, and SHELL. A single entry of a passwd
file entry might look like this:
Now then, if you can see this:
...you can use a passwd' file crackers to "guess" the password to this
account entry. Once you've guessed an accounts password you can use that
account to try and hack root. Try theses common commands on a UNIX to attempt
to steal the 'passwd' file.
'passwd' File Crackers--Hacking UNIX can be done on any machine, the only
place where it can become localized (like on your Mac) is in the process of
hacking 'passwd' files. To hack a 'passwd' file on a Mac, you need a password
file cracker FOR the Mac. A few such programs are:
Killer Cracker 8.0....http://www.tyrell.net/~ibs/Hackr/Hacking
Word Lists--To use the above listed 'passwd' file crackers you need
Dictionary or Word List files. MacCrac comes with a fairly large Dictionary
(2meg), but for the other programs you need to find your own. Paul Leyland
runs Word List f*ckin' central. Hes got hundreds of Word Lists for dozens of
nationalities and criteria, for example: Star Trek, Swahili, American,
French, Names, Dog Names, just a shit load. check him out:
Word List utilities--You can combine several different word lists to make
custom Dictionaries for special (hacking) occassions. A utility that can
bring considerable ease ease to this task is Word List Maker. Word List Maker
is a 'drag&drop' utility to create sorted lists of words from arbitrary text
files. You can drop several text files and/or custom MS-Word dictionaries on
to the WordListMaker icon to create a single word-list. You can also exclude
arbitrary words from the output file. It will combine 2 or more Word Lists,
alphabetize them and delete the duplicates.